Bastion, Timisoara
Halloween Pumpkin

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.

The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; however, like the decorative arts, or advertising, it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential—in a way that they usually are not in a painting, for example. Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of art or the arts. Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts.

Art may be characterized in terms of mimesis (its representation of reality), expression, communication of emotion, or other qualities. During the Romantic period, art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science".Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.The nature of art, and related concepts such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.

Maria Theresia Bastion , Timisoara

Maria Theresia Bastion (Romanian: Bastionul Maria Therezia) was built between 1730-1735 and is the largest preserved piece of wall of the old citadel of Timișoara. Today it is used as a passage, but it also houses commercial spaces, restaurants, bars, a disco and a library, and two permanent exhibitions of the Museum of Banat, the Information and Communications Technology "Violin - a passion for life", and the Ethnography Museum Village. The bastion is included on the list of historical monuments in the Timiș County with classification code TM-II-m-A-06103.03.

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After the conquest of Timișoara by the Habsburgs in 1716, it was realized that the fortifications could not cope with new fighting techniques, therefore it was decided to rebuild the whole city in Vauban style (a fortress-stronghold of a stellar shape). It had an area 10 times larger than the Ottoman medieval fortress. The interior was surrounded by three stellar belts that could be filled with water. Access was via three gates: of Vienna, Petrovaradin and Transylvania (completely demolished in 1891). The nine bastions of the fortress were named after kings and queens or generals. In the second half of the 19th century, the majority of the city walls was demolished to make room for the rapidly expanding city.

The Maria Theresia Bastion, named after the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, was built between 1730-1735 of brick and is the largest defensive wall part of the ancient fortress of Timișoara. It covers about 1.7 hectares of the city center. In addition to this bastion, two other fragments of the walls of the old fortress exist, one of them in the Botanical Park, the other at the Alexandru Ioan Cuza Street.


A jack-o'-lantern (or jack o'lantern) is a carved pumpkin or turnip lantern, associated with the holiday of Halloween and named after the phenomenon of a strange light flickering over peat bogs, called will-o'-the-wisp or jack-o'-lantern. In a jack-o'-lantern, the top of the pumpkin or turnip is cut off to form a lid, the inside flesh is scooped out, and an image — usually a monstrous or comical face – is carved out of the rind to expose the hollow interior. To create the lantern effect, a light source is placed within before the lid is closed. The light source is traditionally a flame such as a candle or tea light, but artificial jack-'o-lanterns with electric lights are also marketed. It is common to see jack-o'-lanterns on doorsteps and otherwise used as decorations prior to and on Halloween.

he carving of vegetables has been a common practice in many parts of the world, and gourds were the earliest plant species domesticated by humans c. 10,000 years ago, primarily for their carving potential. For example, gourds were used to carve lanterns by the Maori over 700 years ago; the Māori word for a gourd also describes a lampshade.